Additionally, another exception occurred while executing the custom error page for the first exception. Chloroquine retinopathy, is a form of toxic retinopathy (damage of the retina) caused by the drugs chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, which are sometimes used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Primaquine and chloroquine Plaquenil rob holland Plaquenil teeth side effects Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine bind to melanin in the retinal pigment epithelium RPE and cause damage to the macular cones outside of the fovea. The drugs inhibit RPE lysosome activity, reduce phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments causing an accumulation of outer receptor segments. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the quinolone family. They are related drugs with similar clinical indications for use and similar manifestations of retinal toxicity, although their therapeutic and toxic doses differ. Objective. Several studies have reported risk factors for hydroxychloroquine HCQ retinal toxicity, but data are limited for patients of Asian ancestry. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of and factors for HCQ retinal toxicity in the Korean population. Methods. There were 123 patients enrolled in this study who were using or had used HCQ. Retinal toxicity was detected using. The risk of toxicity is low for individuals without complicating conditions during the first 5 years of treatment using less than 6.5 mg/kg/day of hydroxychloroquine or 3 mg/kg/day of chloroquine, and/or cumulative doses of less than 1000 gram and 460 gram (total dose), respectively. This eye toxicity limits long-term use of the drugs. Retinal toxicity hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Professional Patient Advice -, Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Practice. Medicare allowable ocular testing for chloroquine therapy New information shows that hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity occurs 7.5 percent of the time, which is not that rare. 3. In those patients who are affected, their daily dose and duration of use varied widely. Determine risk for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity.. Risk of Retinal Toxicity in Longterm Users of Hydroxychloroquine. Chloroquine retinopathy - Wikipedia. H ydroxychloroquine HCQ; Plaquenil, Sanofi, Bridgewater, NJ is an antimalarial agent that is also commonly used as a treatment for a variety of rheumatologic and dermatologic conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The most common side effect associated with its use is retinal toxicity, which may be irreversible. The side effect that is of greatest concern is retinal toxicity. Retinal toxicity of Plaquenil may manifest itself with subtle disturbances of the retinal pigment epithelium which may eventually lead to complete destruction of the macula in the form of bull’s-eye maculopathy. Plaquenil toxicity isn’t even in the top 10, or the top 100” if you’re looking at incidence, he said. “It’s a pretty rare thing.” Nevertheless, he urged doctors to master the Academy’s new guidelines, because the effects from chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, when they do occur, are severe and often irreversible.